The Western View
The expansion of Islam and the Arab empire through the Seljuk Turks in the 11th century caused a note of distress to the clergy of Christianity. The conquest of areas in the Christian Byzantium empire helped to spur anger and resentment against Muslims. With an ever increasing population in the western world and the papal state’s need for power and territory the Crusades was the end result. There were a series of campaigns against Islam and against heretics and troublemakers in Europe itself.
1: True Gospel of Jesus
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True Gospel of Jesus, called Christ, a new prophet sent by God to the world: according to the description of Barnabas his apostle.
Barnabas, apostle of Jesus the Nazarene, called Christ, to all them that dwell upon the earth desireth peace and consolation.
Dearly beloved the great and wonderful God hath during these past days visited us by his prophet Jesus Christ in great mercy of teaching and miracles, by reason whereof many, being deceived of Satan, under presence of piety, are preaching most impious doctrine, calling Jesus son of God, repudiating the circumcision ordained of God for ever, and permitting every unclean meat: among whom also Paul hath been deceived, whereof I speak not without grief; for which cause I am writing that truth which I have seen and heard, in the intercourse that I have had with Jesus, in order that ye may be saved, and not be deceived of Satan and perish in the judgment of God. Therefore beware of every one that preacheth unto you new doctrine contrary to that which I write, that ye may be saved eternally.
The great God be with you and guard you from Satan and and from every evil. Amen.
Chapter 1. The angel Gabriel visits Virgin Mary concerning the birth of Jesus.
In these last years a virgin called Mary, of the lineage of David, of the tribe of Judah, was visited by the angel Gabriel from God. This virgin, living in all holiness without any offense, being blameless, and abiding in prayer with fastings, being one day alone, there entered into her chamber the angel Gabriel, and he saluted her, saying: 'God be with thee, O Mary'.
The Crusades - Introduction
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The Western View
Saladin by Amin Maalouf
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Salah Al-Din, known as Saladin in Western texts was of Kurdish descent. He was the first Ayyubid sultan and at the age of 14 served under the Syrian ruler Nur ud-Din. Salah Al-Din became a notable opponent to the Crusaders in many battles. One excursion was the conquering of the land of the Nile in 1164 which was miscredited to Salah Al-Din. While he was left with the Egyptian lands in his control, he did not play a notable role in the conquering of those lands against the Crusaders.
In 1169, Salah Al-Din served as second in command to his uncle Shirkuh and became vizier of Egypt. Salah Al-Din revitalized the economy of Egypt, and reorganized the military forces in which he started military campaigns against the Crusaders. Salah Al-Din was able to suppress the rulers of Egypt, the Fatimids in 1171 and unite Egypt under the Abbasid Caliphate.